The Effect of Graft Caliber Upon Wall Shear Within in Vivo Distal Vascular Anastomoses

[+] Author and Article Information
R. S. Keynton

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

M. M. Evancho, R. L. Sims

Falor Center for Vascular Studies, Summa Health System, Akron, OH 44325

S. E. Rittgers

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325; Falor Center for Vascular Studies, Summa Health System, Akron, OH 44325

J Biomech Eng 121(1), 79-88 (Feb 01, 1999) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2798047 History: Received June 19, 1997; Revised September 08, 1998; Online October 30, 2007


Wall shear has been widely implicated as a contributing factor in the development of intimal hyperplasia in the anastomoses of chronic arterial bypass grafts. Earlier studies have been restricted to either: (1) in vitro or computer simulation models detailing the complex hemodynamics within an anastomosis without corresponding biological responses, or (2) in vivo models that document biological effects with only approximate wall shear information. Recently, a specially designed pulse ultrasonic Doppler wall shear rate (PUDWSR) measuring device has made it possible to obtain three near-wall velocity measurements nonintrusively within 1.05 mm of the vessel luminal surface from which wall shear rates (WSRs) were derived. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the effect of graft caliber, a surgically controllable variable, upon local hemodynamics, which, in turn, play an important role in the eventual development of anastomotic hyperplasia. Tapered (4–7 mm I.D.) 6-cm-long grafts were implanted bilaterally in an end-to-side fashion with 30 deg proximal and distal anastomoses to bypass occluded common carotid arteries of 16 canines. The bypass grafts were randomly paired in contralateral vessels and placed such that the graft-to-artery diameter ratio, DR, at the distal anastomosis was either 1.0 or 1.5. For all grafts, the average Re was 432 ± 112 and the average Womersley parameter,α, was 3.59 ± 0.39 based on artery diameter. There was a sharp skewing of flow toward the artery floor with the development of a stagnation point whose position varied with time (up to two artery diameters) and DR (generally more downstream for DR = 1.0). Mean WSRs along the artery floor for DR = 1.0 and 1.5 were found to range sharply from moderate to high retrograde values (589 s−1 and 1558 s−1 , respectively) upstream to high antegrade values (2704 s−1 and 2302 s−1 , respectively) immediately downstream of the stagnation point. Although there were no overall differences in mean and peak WSRs between groups, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in oscillatory WSRs as well as in the absolute normalized mean and peak WSRs between groups. There were also significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean and peak WSRs with respect to axial position along the artery floor for both DR cases. In conclusion, WSR varies widely (1558 s−1 retrograde to 2704 s−1 antegrade) within end-to-side distal graft anastomoses, particularly along the artery floor, and may play a role in the development of intimal hyperplasia through local alteration of mass transport and mechano-signal transduction within the endothelium.

Copyright © 1999 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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