Static and Dynamic Bending Responses of the Human Cervical Spine

[+] Author and Article Information
L. M. Voo, F. A. Pintar, N. Yoganandan

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53226

Y. K. Liu

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Northern California, Petaluma, CA 94952

J Biomech Eng 120(6), 693-696 (Dec 01, 1998) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2834880 History: Received February 25, 1998; Revised July 22, 1998; Online January 23, 2008


The quasi-static and dynamic bending responses of the human mid-lower cervical spine were determined using cadaver intervertebral joints fixed at the base to a six-axis load cell. Flexion bending moment was applied to the superior end of the specimen using an electrohydraulic piston. Each specimen was tested under three cycles of quasi-static load-unload and one high-speed dynamic load. A total of five specimens were included in this study. The maximum intervertebral rotation ranged from 11.0 to 15.4 deg for quasi-static tests and from 22.9 to 34.4 deg for dynamic tests. The resulting peak moments at the center of the intervertebral joint ranged from 3.8 to 6.9 Nm for quasi-static tests and from 14.0 to 31.8 Nm for dynamic tests. The quasi-static stiffness ranged from 0.80 to 1.35 Nm/deg with a mean of 1.03 Nm/deg (±0.11 Nm/deg). The dynamic stiffness ranged from 1.08 to 2.00 Nm/deg with a mean of 1.50 Nm/deg (±0.17 Nm/deg). The differences between the two stiffnesses were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Exponential functions were derived to describe the quasi-static and dynamic moment-rotation responses. These results provide input data for lumped-parameter models and validation data for finite element models to better investigate the biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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