Observation and Quantification of Gas Bubble Formation on a Mechanical Heart Valve

[+] Author and Article Information
Hsin-Yi Lin, Brian A. Bianccucci, J. M. Tarbell

Bioengineering Department, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802-4400

Steven Deutsch, Arnold A. Fontaine

Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802-4400

J Biomech Eng 122(4), 304-309 (Mar 22, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1287171 History: Received September 22, 1999; Revised March 22, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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Schematic of the videographic system for visualizing the mitral valve and ultrasonic detection of bubbles in the aortic outlet
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A series of images showing the mechanism by which nuclei were generated after the cavitation vapor condensed back into the solution under conditions of high Crms and high PCO2: (a) cavitation at the edge of the occluder and around the central strut (0.986 ms); (b) nucleus cloud left behind after the collapse of vortex cavitation (4.930 ms); (c) due to the diffusion of CO2 into the nuclei, bubbles became larger (5.914 ms)
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Schematic of the mechanism of gas bubble formation: (a) cavitation; (b) enlarged gas nuclei being carried away immediately after cavitation collapse; (c) gas bubbles generated later on the valve surface; (d) nuclei that remained on the valve surface grew larger due to gas diffusion or coalescence; (e) gas bubbles swept from the surface when the valve reopened
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(a) Plots of gray level (G.L.) versus PCO2 at different Crms; (b) G.L. versus Crms at different PCO2. Error bars represent 95 percent confidence intervals.
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Ultrasound images at different operating conditions: (a) high Crms and low PCO2; G.L.=786; (b) medium Crms and high PCO2; G.L.=1064; (c) high Crms and high PCO2; G.L.=1551. D is the estimated bubble diameter.
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An example of the before (top) and after (bottom) band-pass-filtering pressure trace and its power spectrum; Crms=19.5 mmHg in this case
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Schematic diagram of the mock circulatory flow loop




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