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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Chondrocyte Translocation Response to Direct Current Electric Fields

[+] Author and Article Information
Pen-Hsiu Grace Chao, Rani Roy, Robert L. Mauck, Wendy Liu

Cellular Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

Wilmot B. Valhmu

Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032

Clark T. Hung

Cellular Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027e-mail: cth6@columbia.edu

J Biomech Eng 122(3), 261-267 (Feb 06, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429661 History: Received October 21, 1999; Revised February 06, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Effect of inositol phospholipid pathway inhibitors on chondrocyte motility. (a) Directed velocity of chondrocytes after exposure to U-73122 or vehicle (DMSO). * indicates p<0.0001 relative to the vehicle no-field group and * * indicates p<0.0001 relative to both the applied-field vehicle group and U-73122 no-field group. (b) Directed velocity of chondrocytes after exposure to neomycin and control media (i.e., serum supplemented DMEM).* indicates p<0.0001 relative to the neomycin no-field group and* * indicates p<0.0001 with respect to the applied-field control medium group and p=0.03 with respect to the neomycin no-field group. The number in the parentheses indicates the number of cells studied.
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Net displacement graph of chondrocytes in studies performed using 6 V/cm for one hour in serum-free DMEM at ∼37°C. (a) Directed cathodal migration was observed in the applied-field group. (b) No-field applied cells exhibited random migration. The radial axes of the polar plots are in microns, n=number of cells, + and − indicate the anode and cathode, respectively. Each open circle represents a single cell.
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Effect of temperature on chondrocyte motility. Cell migration at ∼37°C was enhanced twofold over similar studies conducted at room temperature. * indicates p<0.0001 relative to ∼37°C no-field group and * * indicates p<0.0001 with respect to both the ∼37°C applied-field group and the ∼25°C no-field group. The number in the parentheses indicates the number of cells studied.
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Schematic diagram of the galvanotaxis chamber and system. (a) Exploded view of the parallel-plate chamber that permits real-time visualization of migrating cells cultured on a glass slide; (b) Schematic of the galvanotaxis circuit configuration. Current from a power supply is transmitted via Ag–AgCl electrodes bathed in saline reservoirs and linked to the chamber via 2 percent agarose bridges.
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A series of Hoffman contrast images (10×, digitally magnified 400 percent) of a chondrocyte at t=0, 30 and 60 minutes after a DC electric field was turned on (field strength of 6 V/cm). The cell exhibits migration toward the cathode, extension of cytoplasmic processes, in serum supplemented DMEM at room temperature (∼25°C). Cell migration at physiologic temperatures (∼37°C) was nearly doubled.
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A Hoffman contrast image (10×) of cells that have been subjected to 6 V/cm for 4.5 hours in serum-supplemented DMEM at room temperature (∼25°C). With increasing duration of field application, some chondrocytes exhibit alignment that is perpendicular to the applied field.
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Net displacement graphs of chondrocytes after one hour for applied field strengths of 0, 2, 4 and 6 V/cm. The conducting solution was serum supplemented DMEM and studies were performed at ∼37°C. The radial axes are in microns, n=number of cells, + and − indicate the anode and cathode, respectively. Each open circle represents a single cell. A cell, which does not move during the hour, remains in the center of the polar plot, i.e., (0 μm, 0 deg).

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