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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Scaffolds for Engineering Smooth Muscle Under Cyclic Mechanical Strain Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Byung-Soo Kim

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109e-mail: kim_b@hub.tch.harvard.edu

David J. Mooney

Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136e-mail: mooneyd@umich.edu

J Biomech Eng 122(3), 210-215 (Feb 06, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429651 History: Received October 21, 1999; Revised February 06, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Apparatus utilized to subject scaffolds to cyclic strain. Scaffolds were immersed in PBS or medium and clamped in the tissue culture chamber. The scaffolds were subjected to cyclic strain by periodical movement of a crank back and forth as an eccentric disk that was driven by a motor and connected to the crank rotated. The frequency and amplitude of cyclic strain were regulated by controlling the speed of motor rotation with a controller and the position of the crank connection to the eccentric disk, respectively.
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Scanning electron microscopic photomicrographs of: (a) nonwoven PGA fiber-based scaffold, (b) PLLA-bonded PGA scaffold, and (c) type I collagen sponge. The size bars in (a), (b), and (c) indicate 100 μm, 100 μm, and 200 μm, respectively.
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Mechanical properties of tissue-engineering scaffolds: (a) Typical tensile stress–strain curve of nonwoven PGA and bonded PGA scaffolds. (b) Young’s moduli of PGA scaffolds bonded with various amounts of PLLA. The moduli were obtained from the slopes of the initial linear sections of tensile strain–stress curves. (c) Elastic limits of PGA scaffolds bonded with various amounts of PLLA. The elastic limits were determined as the strain at the end points of the initial linear sections of tensile strain–stress curves.
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Typical stress–strain curve of type I collagen sponges subjected to tensile loading
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Permanent deformation of bonded PGA scaffolds and type I collagen sponges subjected to cyclic tensile loads with various amplitude and a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 hours (n=3)
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Permanent deformation of bonded PGA scaffolds and type I collagen sponges subjected to a cyclic tensile load with an amplitude of 7 percent of initial length and a frequency of 0.5 Hz for various time periods. The mass of bonding PLLA in the bonded PGA scaffolds was 82 percent of initial PGA mass (n=3).
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Scanning electron microscopic photomicrograph of rat aortic SMCs following seeding onto type I collagen sponge. The size bar indicates 20 μm.
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Photomicrographs of Verhoeff’s stained cross sections of SM tissues engineered with type I collagen sponges for 10 weeks. The tissue constructs were subjected to (a) cyclic strain or (b) no strain. The dark color represents positive staining for elastin. The original magnification of the photographs was ×1000.
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Transmission electron microscopic photomicrographs of SM tissues engineered with type I collagen sponges for 10 weeks. The tissue constructs were subjected to (a) no strain or (b) cyclic strain. The arrows and arrow heads indicate rough endoplasmic reticulum and dense body, respectively. N: nucleus. Size bars=2 μm.

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