Scaffolds for Engineering Smooth Muscle Under Cyclic Mechanical Strain Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Byung-Soo Kim

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109e-mail: kim_b@hub.tch.harvard.edu

David J. Mooney

Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136e-mail: mooneyd@umich.edu

J Biomech Eng 122(3), 210-215 (Feb 06, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429651 History: Received October 21, 1999; Revised February 06, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kim,  B.-S., and Mooney,  D. J., 1998, “Development of Biocompatible Synthetic Extracellular Matrices for Tissue Engineering,” Trends Biotechnol., 16, pp. 224–230.
Hynes,  R. O., 1992, “Integrins: Versatility, Modulation and Signaling in Cell Adhesion,” Cell, 69, pp. 11–25.
Parsons-Wingerter,  P. A., and Saltzman,  W. M., 1993, “Growth Versus Function in Three-Dimensional Culture of Single and Aggregated Hepatocytes Within Collagen Gels,” Biotechnol. Prog., 9, pp. 600–607.
Deuel, T. F., 1997, “Growth Factors,” in: Principles of Tissue Engineering, R. P. Lanza, R. Langer, and W. L. Chick, eds., Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 133–149.
Banes, A. J., 1993, “Mechanical Strain and the Mammalian Cell,” in: Physical Forces and the Mammalian Cell, J. A. Frangos, ed., Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 81–123.
Fung, Y. C., 1990, Biomechanics: Motion, Flow, Stress and Growth, Springer, New York.
Baskin,  L., Howard,  P. S., and Macarak,  E., 1993, “Effect of Physical Forces on Bladder Smooth Muscle and Urothelium,” J. Urol., 150, pp. 601–607.
Birukov,  K. G., Shirinsky,  V. P., Stepanova,  O. V., Tkachuk,  V. A., Hahn,  A. W. A., Resink,  T. J., and Smirnov,  V. N., 1995, “Stretch Affects Phenotype and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells,” Mol. Cell. Biochem., 144, pp. 131–139.
Kanda,  K., and Matsuda,  T., 1993, “Behavior of Arterial Wall Cells Cultured on Periodically Stretched Substrates,” Cell Transplant, 2, pp. 475–484.
Reusch,  P., Wagdy,  H., Reusch,  R., Wilson,  E., and Ives,  H. E., 1996, “Mechanical Strain Increases Smooth Muscle and Decreases Nonmuscle Myosin Expression in Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.” Circ. Res., 79, pp. 1046–1053.
Sumpio,  B. E., Banes,  A. J., Link,  W. G., and Johnson,  G., 1988, “Enhanced Collagen Production by Smooth Muscle Cells During Repetitive Mechanical Stretching,” Arch. Surg., 123, pp. 1233–1236.
Kim,  B.-S., Nikolovski,  J., Bonadio,  J., and Mooney,  D. J., 1999, “Cyclic Mechanical Strain Regulates the Development of Engineered Smooth Muscle Tissue,” Nat. Biotechnol., 17, pp. 979–983.
Niklason,  L. E., Gao,  J., Abbott,  W. M., Hirschi,  K. K., Houser,  S., Marini,  R., and Langer,  R., 1999, “Functional Arteries Grown in Vitro,” Science, 284, pp. 489–493.
Harris,  L. D., Kim,  B.-S., and Mooney,  D. J., 1998, “Open Pore Biodegradable Matrices Formed With Gas Foaming,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 42, pp. 396–402.
Kim,  B.-S., and Mooney,  D. J., 1998, “Engineering Smooth Muscle Tissue With a Predefined Structure,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 41, pp. 322–332.
Kim,  B.-S., Putnam,  A. J., Kulik,  T. J., and Mooney,  D. J., 1998, “Optimizing Seeding and Culture Methods to Engineer Smooth Muscle Tissue on Biodegradable Polymer Matrices,” Biotechnol. Bioeng., 57, pp. 46–54.
Kim,  B.-S., Nikolovski,  J., Bonadio,  J., Smiley,  E., and Mooney,  D. J., 1999, “Engineered Smooth Muscle Tissues: Regulating Cell Phenotype With the Scaffold,” Exp. Cell Res., 251, pp. 318–328.
Mooney,  D. J., Mazzoni,  C. L., Breuer,  C., Mcnamara,  K., Hern,  D., Vacanti,  J. P., and Langer,  R., 1996, “Stabilized Polyglycolic Acid Fibre Based Tubes for Tissue Engineering,” Biomaterials, 17, pp. 115–124.
Rothman,  A., Kulik,  T. J., Taubman,  M. B., Berk,  B. C., Smith,  C. W. J., and Nadal-Ginard,  B., 1992, “Development and Characterization of a Cloned Rat Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Line That Maintains Differentiated Properties Through Multiple Subcultures,” Circulation, 86, pp. 1977–1986.
Ku, D. N., and Zhu, C., 1993, “The Mechanical Environment of the Artery,” in: Hemodynamic Forces and Vascular Cell Biology, B. E. Sumpio, ed., R. G. Landes Company, Austin, pp. 1–23.
Callister, W. D., Jr., 1991, Materials Science and Engineering, Wiley, New York, pp. 515–518.
Patel,  D. J., Greenfield,  W. G., Austen,  W. G., Morrow,  A. G., and Fry,  D. L., 1965, “Pressure Flow Relationships in the Ascending Aorta and Femoral Artery of Man,” J. Appl. Phys., 20, pp. 459–463.
Steinman,  D. A., and Ethier,  C. R., 1994, “The Effect of Wall Distensibility on Flow in a Two-Dimensional End-to-Side Anastomosis,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 116, pp. 294–301.
Li,  D. Y., Brooke,  B., Davis,  E. C., Mecham,  R. P., Sorensen,  L. K., Boak,  B. B., Eichwald,  E., and Keating,  M. T., 1998, “Elastin Is an Essential Determinant of Arterial Morphogenesis,” Nature (London), 393, pp. 276–280.
Weinberg,  C. B., and Bell,  E., 1986, “A Blood Vessel Model Constructed From Collagen and Cultured Vascular Cells,” Science, 231, pp. 397–400.
Ziegler,  T., and Nerem,  R. M., 1994, “Tissue Engineering a Blood Vessel: Regulation of Vascular Biology by Mechanical Stresses,” J. Cell. Biochem., 56, pp. 204–209.
Cao,  Y., Vacanti,  J. P., Ma,  X., Paige,  K. T., Upton,  J., Chowanski,  Z., Schloo,  B., Langer,  R., and Vacanti,  C. A., 1994, “Generation of Neo-Tendon Using Synthetic Polymers Seeded With Tenocytes,” Transplant. Proc., 26, pp. 3390–3392.
Clarke,  M. S., and Feeback,  D. L., 1996, “Mechanical Load Induces Sarcoplasmic Wounding and FGF Release in Differentiated Human Skeletal Muscle Cultures,” FASEB J., 10, pp. 502–509.


Grahic Jump Location
Apparatus utilized to subject scaffolds to cyclic strain. Scaffolds were immersed in PBS or medium and clamped in the tissue culture chamber. The scaffolds were subjected to cyclic strain by periodical movement of a crank back and forth as an eccentric disk that was driven by a motor and connected to the crank rotated. The frequency and amplitude of cyclic strain were regulated by controlling the speed of motor rotation with a controller and the position of the crank connection to the eccentric disk, respectively.
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron microscopic photomicrographs of: (a) nonwoven PGA fiber-based scaffold, (b) PLLA-bonded PGA scaffold, and (c) type I collagen sponge. The size bars in (a), (b), and (c) indicate 100 μm, 100 μm, and 200 μm, respectively.
Grahic Jump Location
Mechanical properties of tissue-engineering scaffolds: (a) Typical tensile stress–strain curve of nonwoven PGA and bonded PGA scaffolds. (b) Young’s moduli of PGA scaffolds bonded with various amounts of PLLA. The moduli were obtained from the slopes of the initial linear sections of tensile strain–stress curves. (c) Elastic limits of PGA scaffolds bonded with various amounts of PLLA. The elastic limits were determined as the strain at the end points of the initial linear sections of tensile strain–stress curves.
Grahic Jump Location
Typical stress–strain curve of type I collagen sponges subjected to tensile loading
Grahic Jump Location
Permanent deformation of bonded PGA scaffolds and type I collagen sponges subjected to cyclic tensile loads with various amplitude and a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 hours (n=3)
Grahic Jump Location
Permanent deformation of bonded PGA scaffolds and type I collagen sponges subjected to a cyclic tensile load with an amplitude of 7 percent of initial length and a frequency of 0.5 Hz for various time periods. The mass of bonding PLLA in the bonded PGA scaffolds was 82 percent of initial PGA mass (n=3).
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron microscopic photomicrograph of rat aortic SMCs following seeding onto type I collagen sponge. The size bar indicates 20 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Photomicrographs of Verhoeff’s stained cross sections of SM tissues engineered with type I collagen sponges for 10 weeks. The tissue constructs were subjected to (a) cyclic strain or (b) no strain. The dark color represents positive staining for elastin. The original magnification of the photographs was ×1000.
Grahic Jump Location
Transmission electron microscopic photomicrographs of SM tissues engineered with type I collagen sponges for 10 weeks. The tissue constructs were subjected to (a) no strain or (b) cyclic strain. The arrows and arrow heads indicate rough endoplasmic reticulum and dense body, respectively. N: nucleus. Size bars=2 μm.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In