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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Viscoelastic Dissipation in Compact Bone: Implications for Stress-Induced Fluid Flow in Bone

[+] Author and Article Information
Elijah Garner

John Deere, Inc.

Roderic Lakes

Department of Engineering Physics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 147 ERB, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706-1687e-mail: lakes@engr.wisc.edu

Taeyong Lee

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 147 ERB, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706-1687

Colby Swan

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242

Richard Brand

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242

J Biomech Eng 122(2), 166-172 (Nov 30, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429638 History: Received March 09, 1999; Revised November 30, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Figures

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tan δ for human compact bone, adapted from data of Lakes et al. 29 for wet human tibial bone at 37°C (calculated from relaxation, solid squares, ▪; directly measured, ▴), from curve fit of Sasaki et al. 2 to data for wet bovine femoral bone (open squares, □). Also shown are results of Thompson 42 for whole dog radius at acoustic frequencies (diamond, ⋄), of wet human femoral bone by Lakes 43 via a piezoelectric ultrasonic oscillator (diamonds, ♦), and of Adler and Cook 44 at ultrasonic frequency for canine bone at room temperature (open triangles, ▵). Damping at low frequency inferred from long-term creep by Park and Lakes 45, plus +. For comparison, a Debye peak is shown (inverted triangles ∇). the peak can occur at any frequency, depending on the material.
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Experimental configuration, the instrument uses electromagnetic force from the Helmholtz coil upon the end magnet to generate torque, and a measurement of the deflection of a reflected laser beam to determine end angular displacement. High frequencies are attainable since the measurement system contains little inertia.
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Comparison of measured tan δ for dry bone, top, first specimen; bottom, second specimen. Torsion: transverse, ▵; longitudinal, ▴. Bending: transverse, □; longitudinal, ▪.
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Comparison of measured tan δ for wet bone, top, first specimen; bottom, second specimen. Torsion: transverse, ▵ ; longitudinal, ▴. Bending: transverse, □; longitudinal, ▪.
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Comparison of measured tan δ for transverse cut bone, top, first specimen; bottom, second specimen. Torsion: dry, ▵ ; wet, ▴. Bending: dry, □; wet, ▪.
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Comparison of measured tan δ for longitudinal cut bone, top, first specimen; bottom, second specimen. Torsion: dry, ▵; wet, ▴. Bending: dry, □; wet, ▪.
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(a) Periodic arrangement of cylindrical canals, representing either Haversian porosity, or canalicular porosity; and (b) unit cell of canal and bone matrix

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