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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Aerosol Transport and Deposition in Sequentially Bifurcating Airways

[+] Author and Article Information
J. K. Comer, C. Kleinstreuer, S. Hyun

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910

C. S. Kim

Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

J Biomech Eng 122(2), 152-158 (Nov 03, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429636 History: Received August 26, 1998; Revised November 03, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Weibel, E. R., 1963, Morphometry of the Human Lung, Academic Press, New York.
Hammersley,  J. R., and Olson,  D. E., 1992, “Physical Models of the Smaller Pulmonary Airways,” J. Appl. Physiol., 72, pp. 2402–2414.
Kim,  C. S., Brown,  L. K., Lewars,  G. G., and Sackner,  M. A., 1983, “Deposition of Aerosol Particles and Flow Resistance in Mathematical and Experimental Airway Models,” J. Appl. Physiol., 55, pp. 154–163.
Kim,  C. S., and Iglesias,  A. J., 1989, “Deposition of Inhaled Particles in Bifurcating Airway Models: I. Inspiratory Deposition,” J. Aerosol Medicine, 2, pp. 1–14.
Kim,  C. S., Fisher,  D. M., Lutz,  D. J., and Gerrity,  T. R., 1994, “Particle Deposition in Bifurcating Airway Models With Varying Airway Geometry,” J. Aerosol Sci., 25, pp. 567–581.
Balásházy,  I., 1994, “Simulation of Particle Trajectories in Bifurcating Tubes,” J. Comput. Phys., 110, pp. 11–22.
Balásházy,  I., and Hofmann,  W., 1993, “Particle Deposition in Airway Bifurcations—I. Inspiratory Flow,” J. Aerosol Sci., 24, pp. 745–772.
Balásházy,  I., and Hofmann,  W., 1995, “Deposition of Aerosols in Asymmetric Airway Bifurcations,” J. Aerosol Sci., 26, pp. 273–292.
Gatlin, B., Cuicchi, C., Hammersley, J., Olson, D., Reddy, R., and Burnside, G., 1997, “Particle Path and Wall Deposition Patterns in Laminar Flow Through a Bifurcation,” ASME FEDSM97, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 1–6.
Farag, A., Ng, T., Hammersley, J., and Olson, J., 1998, “Fluid Mechanics of an Asymmetric Bifurcation Model of Human Pulmonary System,” ASME FEDSM98, Washington, DC, pp. 1–8.
Lee,  J. W., Goo,  J. H., and Chung,  M. K., 1996, “Characteristics of Inertial Deposition in a Double Bifurcation,” J. Aerosol Sci., 27, pp. 119–138.
Kim,  C. S., and Fisher,  D. M., 1999, “Deposition Characteristics of Aerosol Particles in Successively Bifurcating Airway Models,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 31, pp. 198–220.
Comer, J. K., 1998, “Computational Two-Phase Flow Analyses and Applications to Gas–Liquid and Gas–Solid Flows,” Ph.D. thesis, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Kleinstreuer, C., 1997, Engineering Fluid Dynamics—An Interdisciplinary Systems Approach, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Clift, R., Grace, J. R., and Weber, M. E., 1978, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, Academic Press, New York.
AEA Technology, 1997, CFX-4.2: Solyer, CFX International, Oxfordshire, UK.
Johnston, J. R., Isles, K. D., and Muir, D. C. F., 1977, “Inertial Deposition of Particles in Human Branching Airways,” in: Inhaled Particles IV, W. H. Walton, ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 61–72.
Comer, J. K., Kleinstreuer, C., Longest, P. W., Kim, C. S., and Kinsey, J. S., 1998, “Computational Aerosol Transport and Deposition Analyses for Human Exposure Chambers and Model Respiratory Airways,” ASME FEDSM98, Washington, DC, pp. 1–6.
Comer, J. K., Kleinstreuer, C., and Kim, C. S., 2000, “Air Flow Fields and Particle Deposition Patterns in Double Bifurcations,” J. Fluid Mech., submitted.
Zhao,  Y., and Lieber,  B. B., 1994, “Steady Inspiratory Flow in a Model Symmetric Bifurcation,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 116, pp. 488–496.
Zhao,  Y., Brunskill,  C. T., and Lieber,  B. B., 1997, “Inspiratory and Expiratory Steady Flow Analysis in a Model Symmetrically Bifurcating Airway,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119, pp. 52–65.
Farag, A., Hammersley, J., Olson, D., and Ng, T., 1998, “Fluid Mechanics of a Symmetric Bifurcation Model of the Human Pulmonary System,” ASME FEDSM98, Washington, DC, pp. 1–8.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of symmetric in-plane double bifurcation geometry: D1=0.6,D2=0.5,D3=0.35,L1=2.4,L2=0.836,L3=3.367,L4=0.6,Rb1=2.7D2,Rb2=4.7D3,rc1=0.1D2,rc2=0.1D3 (all dimensions in centimeters)
Grahic Jump Location
Representative computational mesh and particle inlet distribution: (a) in-plane double bifurcation; (b) 90 deg out-of-plane double bifurcation; and (c) parabolic particle inlet distribution
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between computed and measured η(Stk) data for the first bifurcation of a symmetric double bifurcation (for correlation, cf. 12)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between computed and measured η(Stk) data for the second bifurcation of a symmetric in-plane double bifurcation (for correlation, cf. 12)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between computed and measured η(Stk) data for the second bifurcation of a symmetric out-of-plane double bifurcation (for correlation, cf. 12)
Grahic Jump Location
Deposition distributions for the in-plane and out-of-plane double bifurcations: (a) ReD1=500, and (b) ReD1=2000
Grahic Jump Location
Local particle deposition patterns and velocity contour plots in a symmetric in-plane double bifurcation
Grahic Jump Location
Local particle deposition patterns in an out-of-plane double bifurcation
Grahic Jump Location
Individual particles’ inlet position (cf. Fig. 1) and fate in a symmetric, in-plane double bifurcation
Grahic Jump Location
Individual particles’ inlet position (cf. Fig. 1) and fate in a symmetric, out-of-plane double bifurcation

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