0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Biomechanical Study of Pediatric Human Cervical Spine: A Finite Element Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Srirangam Kumaresan, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Dennis J. Maiman

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295

Shashi Kuppa

Conrad Technologies, Inc., Washington, DC 20202

J Biomech Eng 122(1), 60-71 (Aug 22, 1999) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429628 History: Received November 24, 1998; Revised August 22, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Burdi,  A. R., Huelke,  D. F., Snyder,  R. G., and Lowrey,  G. H., 1969, “Infants and Children in the Adult World of Automobile Safety Design: Pediatric and Anatomical Considerations for Design of Child Restraints,” J. Biomech., 2, pp. 267–280.
Hayashi,  K., and Yabuki,  T., 1985, “Origin of the Uncus and of Luschka’s Joint in the Cervical Spine,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 67A, pp. 788–791.
Hindman,  B., and Poole,  C., 1970, “Early Appearance of the Secondary Vertebral Ossification Centers,” Radiology, 95, pp. 359–361.
Knutsson,  F., 1961, “Growth and Differentiation of Postnatal Vertebra,” Acta Radiol., 55, pp. 401–408.
Roaf,  R., 1960, “Vertebral Growth and Its Mechanical Control,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 42B, pp. 40–59.
O’Rahilly, R., and Benson, D., 1985, “Development of Vertebral Column,” in: The Pediatric Spine, D. Bradford and R. Hensinger, eds., Thieme, Inc., New York, pp. 3–17.
Sherk, H. H., Dunn, E. J., Eismont, F. J., Fielding, J. W., Long, D. M., Ono, K., Penning, L., and Raynor, R., 1989, The Cervical Spine, J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA.
Peacock,  A., 1956, “Observations on Postnatal Structure of Intervertebral Disc in Man,” J. Anat., 86, pp. 162–179.
Taylor,  J., 1975, “Growth of Human Intervertebral Discs and Vertebral Bodies,” J. Anat., 120, pp. 49–68.
Kasai,  T., Ikata,  T., Katoh,  S., Miyake,  R., and Tsubo,  M., 1996, “Growth of Cervical Spine With Special Reference to Its Lordosis and Mobility,” Spine, 21, pp. 2067–2073.
Bailey,  D., 1952, “Normal Cervical Spine in Infants and Children,” Radiology, 59, pp. 712–719.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., Pintar,  F., Voo,  L., Cusick,  J., and Larson,  S., 1997, “Finite Element Modeling of Cervical Laminectomy With Graded Facetectomy,” J. Spinal Disord., 10, pp. 40–47.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., and Pintar,  F. A., 1998, “Finite Element Modeling Approaches of Human Cervical Spine Facet Joint Capsule,” J. Biomech., 31, pp. 371–376.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., and Pintar,  F. A., 1999, “Finite Element Analysis of the Cervical Spine: A Material Property Sensitivity Study,” Clinical Biomechanics, 14, pp. 41–53.
Yoganandan,  N., Kumaresan,  S., Voo,  L., and Pintar,  F., 1997, “Finite Element Model of the Human Lower Cervical Spine,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119, pp. 87–92.
Gosh, P., 1988, Biology of the Intervertebral Disc, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
Pooni,  J. S., Hukins,  D. W., Harris,  P. F., Hilton,  R. C., and Davies,  K. E., 1986, “Comparison of the Structure of Human Intervertebral Discs in the Cervical, Thoracic and Lumbar Regions of the Spine,” Surg. Radiol Anat., 8, pp. 175–182.
Shirazi-Adl,  S. A., Shrivastava,  S. C., and Ahmed,  A. M., 1984, “Stress Analysis of the Lumbar Disc-Body Unit in Compression: A Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Study,” Spine, 9, pp. 120–134.
Spilker,  R., Jacobs,  D., and Schultz,  A., 1986, “Material Constants for a Finite Element Model of the Intervertebral Disk With a Fiber Composite Annulus,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 108, pp. 1–11.
Clausen, J. D., 1996, “Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Cervical Spine Biomechanics: Effects of Injury and Stabilization,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
Ueno,  K., and Liu,  Y. K., 1987, “A Three Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Model of Lumbar Intervertebral Joint in Torsion,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 109, pp. 200–209.
Galante,  J. O., 1967, “Tensile Properties of the Human Lumbar Annulus Fibrosus,” Acta Orthop. Scand. Suppl., 100, p. 1–91.
Goel,  V. K., and Clausen,  J. D., 1998, “Prediction of Load Sharing Among Spinal Components of a C5–C6 Motion Segment Using the Finite Element Approach,” Spine, 23, pp. 684–691.
Goel,  V. K., Monroe,  B. T., Gilbertson,  L. G., and Brinckmann,  P., 1995, “Interlaminar Shear Stresses and Laminae Separation in a Disc: Finite Element Analysis of the L3–4 Motion Segment Subjected to Axial Compressive Loads,” Spine, 20, pp. 689–698.
Kempson, G. E., 1979, “Mechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage.” in: Adult Articular Cartilage, Pitman, Kent, England, pp. 333–414.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., and Pintar,  F. A., 1997, “Adult and Pediatric Human Cervical Spine Finite Element Analyses,” ASME BED, 35, pp. 515–516.
Lavaste,  F., Skalli,  W., Robin,  S., Roy-Camille,  R., and Mazel,  C., 1992, “Three Dimensional Geometrical and Mechanical Modeling of the Lumbar Spine,” J. Biomech., 25, pp. 1153–1164.
Lindahl,  D., 1975, “Mechanical Properties of Dried Spongy Bone,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 47, pp. 11–19.
Melvin, J. W., 1995, “Injury Assessment Reference Values for the CRABI 6-Month Infant Dummy in a Rear-Facing Infant Restraint With Airbag Deployment,” Proc. SAE Congress and Exposition, pp. 1–12.
Pintar, F. A., 1986, “Biomechanics of Spinal Elements,” Doctoral Dissertation, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.
Sharma,  M., Langrana,  N. A., and Rodriguez,  J., 1995, “Role of Ligaments and Facets in Lumbar Spinal Stability,” Spine, 20, pp. 887–900.
Wu,  H. C., and Yao,  R. F., 1976, “Mechanical Behavior of the Human Anulus Fibrosus,” J. Biomech., 9, pp. 1–7.
Yamada, H., 1970, Strength of Biological Materials, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
ABAQUS, 1994, “ABAQUS—Standard User’s Manual,” Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.
I-DEAS, 1994, “I-DEAS MS,” Structural Dynamics Research Corporation, Milford, OH.
Snyder. R. G., 1977, “Anthropometry of Infants, Children, and Youths to Age 18 for Product Safety Design,” University of Michigan.
Kleinberger, M., 1993, “Application of Finite Element Techniques to the Study of Cervical Spine Mechanics,” Proc. 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 261–272.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., and Pintar,  F., 1997, “Finite Element Analysis of Anterior Cervical Spine Interbody Fusion,” Biomed. Mat. & Eng., 7, pp. 221–230.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., and Pintar,  F. A., 1997, “Pediatric Neck Modeling Using Finite Element Analysis,” Inter. J. Crashworthiness, 2, pp. 367–377.
Langrana,  N. A., Lee,  C. K., and Yang,  S. W., 1991, “Finite Element Modeling of the Synthetic Intervertebral Disc,” Spine, 16, pp. 245–S252.
Martinez, M., Anderson, R., Hart, R., Bundy, K., Dinh, D., Hew, M., and Aydin, F., 1997, “Titanium Release From T1-6AL-4V Cervical Spine Plates: A Computational and Experimental Study in the Canine Model,” Proc. 43rd Orthopaedic Research Society, p. 215–236.
Maurel,  N., Lavaste,  F., and Skalli,  W., 1997, “A Three Dimensional Parameterized Finite Element Model of the Lower Cervical Spine. Study of the Influence of the Posterior Articular Facets,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 921–931.
Yoganandan,  N., Kumaresan,  S., Voo,  L., and Pintar,  F., 1996, “Finite Element Applications in Human Cervical Spine Modeling,” Spine, 21, pp. 1824–1834.
Yoganandan,  N., Myklebust,  J. B., Ray,  G., and Sances,  A., 1987, “Mathematical and Finite Element Analysis of Spinal Injuries,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 15, pp. 29–93.
Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F. A., Larson, S. J., Sances, A., Jr., eds., 1998, Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma: Clinical and Biomechanical, IOS Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., and Pintar,  F. A., 1997, “Methodology to Quantify the Uncovertebral Joint in the Human Cervical Spine,” J. Musculoskeletal Research, 1, pp. 131–139.
Natarajan,  R. N., Ke,  J. H., and Andersson,  B. J., 1994, “A Model to Study the Disc Degeneration Process,” Spine, 19, pp. 259–265.
Ueno, K., 1984, “A Three Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Model of Lumbar Intervertebral Joint,” University of Iowa.
Goel,  V. K., Kim,  Y. E., Lim,  T. H., and Weinstein,  J. N., 1988, “An Analytical Investigation of the Mechanics of Spinal Instrumentation,” Spine, 13, pp. 1003–1011.
Saito,  T., Yamamuro,  T., Shikata,  J., Oka,  M., and Tsutsumi,  S., 1991, “Analysis and Prevention of Spinal Column Deformity Following Cervical Laminectomy. I. Pathogenetic Analysis of Postlaminectomy Deformities,” Spine, 16, pp. 494–502.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
(a) Schematic of the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine vertebra (superior view). In the one-year-old vertebra, the ossification centers (centrum and neural arches) are loosely connected by cartilage materials (synchondroses). In the three-year-old vertebra, the neural arches fuse with each other posteriorly. In the six-year-old vertebra, the neural arches fuse with vertebral centrum anteriorly. In adult vertebra, primary ossification centers (centrum and neural arches) fuse completely and secondary ossification centers (uncinates and bifid spinous process) fuse with primary ossification centers. (b) Schematic of the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine functional spinal unit (anterior view). In the one-, three-, and six-year-old, the superior and inferior growth plates, and the flat vertebral centrum without uncinates are seen. In the adult vertebra, saddle-shaped uncinates are seen.
Grahic Jump Location
Illustration of cervical spine facet joint orientation in the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine. In pediatric spines, the facet joint orientations are flatter. As age progresses, the facet joint becomes more inclined.
Grahic Jump Location
Illustration of the intervertebral disc components in the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine. Left: sagittal section; right: magnified view of the annulus laminates showing the arrangement of fibers in the ground substance. The discs in pediatric spines are characterized by a relatively larger size nucleus with a lack of clear demarcation between the loosely embedded fibers in the ground substance and nucleus pulposus. As age advances, the fibers in the ground substance stiffen and distinguish the annulus from the nucleus.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic representation demonstrating superior view of typical cervical vertebra. Illustration demonstrates the methodology used in the study. In OS method, the models were obtained from the adult model with simple scaling down to represent the pediatric models. In LGM method, the adult model was modified to incorporate age-specific local component material changes based upon the pediatric development process. This method did not include downward “size” scaling. In LGMOS approach, the modified adult models were scaled down to simulate the pediatric spine. In other words, this method applies the principles used in OS method to the models developed in LGM method.
Grahic Jump Location
Different views of finite element mesh of ligamentous adult C4–C5–C6 spine. Left: Postero-lateral view. Top right: Superior view. Bottom right: Anterolateral view.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under flexion using linear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under extension using linear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–flexion (A1) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–flexion (A2) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–extension (P1) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–extension (P2) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under flexion
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under extension
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–flexion (A1)
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–flexion (A2)
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–extension (P1)
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–extension (P2)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In