0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Biomechanical Study of Pediatric Human Cervical Spine: A Finite Element Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Srirangam Kumaresan, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Dennis J. Maiman

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295

Shashi Kuppa

Conrad Technologies, Inc., Washington, DC 20202

J Biomech Eng 122(1), 60-71 (Aug 22, 1999) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429628 History: Received November 24, 1998; Revised August 22, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
(a) Schematic of the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine vertebra (superior view). In the one-year-old vertebra, the ossification centers (centrum and neural arches) are loosely connected by cartilage materials (synchondroses). In the three-year-old vertebra, the neural arches fuse with each other posteriorly. In the six-year-old vertebra, the neural arches fuse with vertebral centrum anteriorly. In adult vertebra, primary ossification centers (centrum and neural arches) fuse completely and secondary ossification centers (uncinates and bifid spinous process) fuse with primary ossification centers. (b) Schematic of the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine functional spinal unit (anterior view). In the one-, three-, and six-year-old, the superior and inferior growth plates, and the flat vertebral centrum without uncinates are seen. In the adult vertebra, saddle-shaped uncinates are seen.
Grahic Jump Location
Illustration of cervical spine facet joint orientation in the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine. In pediatric spines, the facet joint orientations are flatter. As age progresses, the facet joint becomes more inclined.
Grahic Jump Location
Illustration of the intervertebral disc components in the one-, three-, and six-year-old, and adult human cervical spine. Left: sagittal section; right: magnified view of the annulus laminates showing the arrangement of fibers in the ground substance. The discs in pediatric spines are characterized by a relatively larger size nucleus with a lack of clear demarcation between the loosely embedded fibers in the ground substance and nucleus pulposus. As age advances, the fibers in the ground substance stiffen and distinguish the annulus from the nucleus.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic representation demonstrating superior view of typical cervical vertebra. Illustration demonstrates the methodology used in the study. In OS method, the models were obtained from the adult model with simple scaling down to represent the pediatric models. In LGM method, the adult model was modified to incorporate age-specific local component material changes based upon the pediatric development process. This method did not include downward “size” scaling. In LGMOS approach, the modified adult models were scaled down to simulate the pediatric spine. In other words, this method applies the principles used in OS method to the models developed in LGM method.
Grahic Jump Location
Different views of finite element mesh of ligamentous adult C4–C5–C6 spine. Left: Postero-lateral view. Top right: Superior view. Bottom right: Anterolateral view.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under flexion using linear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under extension using linear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–flexion (A1) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–flexion (A2) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–extension (P1) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Computation of one-, three-, and six-year-old pediatric spine responses by extrapolating the adult spine response under compression–extension (P2) using nonlinear regression. The dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence limits.
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under flexion
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under extension
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–flexion (A1)
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–flexion (A2)
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–extension (P1)
Grahic Jump Location
Percentage increase in flexibilities in one-, three-, and six-year-old spine responses computed using OS, LGM, and LGMOS approaches under compression–extension (P2)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In