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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Prevention of Mechanical Stretch-Induced Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Injury in Experimental Vein Grafts

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Q. Liu, M. M. Moore, C. Yap

Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3107

J Biomech Eng 122(1), 31-38 (Aug 22, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.429625 History: Received January 07, 1999; Revised August 22, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Photographs showing a nonengineered vein graft with increased tensile stress immediately after surgery (A), an engineered vein graft without increased tensile stress immediately after surgery (B), and an engineered vein graft without increased tensile stress 30 days after surgery (C). Flow direction: left to right. Aor: aorta. v: vein graft. s: PTFE membrane sheath. Arrow: graft–host junction. Scale: 1 mm (for all panels).
Grahic Jump Location
Changes in the diameter of nonengineered and engineered vein grafts. Mean and SD are presented. n=5 for each data point.
Grahic Jump Location
Changes in the average tensile stress in the wall of nonengineered vein grafts and in the PTFE sheath. Mean and SD are presented. n=5 for each data point.
Grahic Jump Location
En face micrographs showing silver nitrate-labeled endothelial cells in the middle region of nonengineered vein grafts with increased tensile stress (first row) and engineered vein grafts with reduced tensile stress (second row) at 1 hour, and 1, 5, and 30 days. The vertical direction of each micrograph coincides with the blood flow direction. * : area without endothelial cells. Scale: 100 μm (for all panels).
Grahic Jump Location
Changes in the coverage percentage of endothelial cells in normal jugular veins, in nonengineered vein grafts with increased tensile stress, and in engineered vein grafts with reduced tensile stress. Note that data at time zero for nonengineered and engineered vein grafts were from jugular veins. Noneng.: nonengineered vein grafts. Eng.: engineered vein grafts. prox.: proximal region. mid.: middle region. dist.: distal region. Mean and SD are presented. n=5 for each data point.
Grahic Jump Location
En face fluorescent micrographs showing fluorescein phalloidin-labeled SMC actin filaments in the middle region of nonengineered vein grafts with increased tensile stress (first row) engineered vein grafts with reduced tensile stress (second row) at 1 hour, and 1, 5, and 30 days. The horizontal direction of each micrograph coincides with the circumferential direction of the vessel. * : area without SMC actin filaments. Scale: 100 μm (for all panels).
Grahic Jump Location
Changes in the coverage percentage of SMCs in normal jugular veins and in the proximal, middle, and distal regions of vein grafts with and without increased tensile stress. Note that data at time zero for nonengineered and engineered vein grafts were from jugular veins. Noneng.: nonengineered vein grafts. Eng.: engineered vein grafts. prox.: proximal region. mid.: middle region. dist.: distal region. Mean and SD are presented. n=5 for each data point.
Grahic Jump Location
Fluorescent micrographs showing SMC α-actin, labeled using an anti-SMC α-actin antibody, in a normal jugular vein (panel A), in vein grafts with increased tensile stress at 1 hour, and 1, 5, and 30 days (panels B,C,D, and E, respectively), and in vein grafts without increased tensile stress at 1 hour, and 1, 5, and 30 days (panels, F,G,H, and I, respectively). S: PTFE membrane sheath. Arrow: SMC layer. Scale: 100 μm (for all panels).
Grahic Jump Location
Changes in the thickness of the SMC positive layer of normal jugular veins, and vein grafts with and without increased tensile stress. Mean and SD are presented. n=5 for each data point.

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