Blood Freezing to Nearly Absolute Zero Temperature: −272.29°C

[+] Author and Article Information
E. G. Cravalho

Harvard/MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139

C. E. Huggins

Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 02139, and Blood Bank and Transfusion Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 02114

K. R. Diller

Bio-Heat Transfer Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex. 78712

W. W. Watson

Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139

J Biomech Eng 103(1), 24-26 (Feb 01, 1981) (3 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3138240 History: Received July 07, 1980; Revised October 17, 1980; Online June 15, 2009


Human erythrocytes were collected in ACD anticoagulant, glycerolized with an equal volume of 8.6 M glycerol, 8 percent glucose, 1 percent fructose, and 0.3 percent Na2 EDTA solution, sealed in glass ampules, and frozen to −272.29°C (0.86°K) in liquid helium under high vacuum. Biological assays performed after thawing and three-stage dialysis to remove the glycerol showed less than 1 percent hemolysis. Intracellular potassium, 2,3 DPG, and ATP were within the normal range.

Copyright © 1981 by ASME
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