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Research Papers

Design and Validation of a Biosensor Implantation Capsule Robot

[+] Author and Article Information
Wanchuan Xie, Weston M. Lewis, Jared Kaser, C. Ross Welch, Pengbo Li, Carl A. Nelson

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
W342 Nebraska Hall,
Lincoln, NE 68588-0526

Vishal Kothari

Department of Surgery,
University of Nebraska Medical Center,
4400 Emile Street,
Omaha, NE 68198

Benjamin S. Terry

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
W342 Nebraska Hall,
Lincoln, NE 68588-0526
e-mail: bterry2@unl.edu

Manuscript received October 31, 2016; final manuscript received April 13, 2017; published online June 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nathan Sniadecki.

J Biomech Eng 139(8), 081003 (Jun 07, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: BIO-16-1427; doi: 10.1115/1.4036607 History: Received October 31, 2016; Revised April 13, 2017

We have proposed a long-term, noninvasive, nonrestrictive method of delivering and implanting a biosensor within the body via a swallowable implantation capsule robot (ICR). The design and preliminary validation of the ICR’s primary subsystem—the sensor deployment system—is discussed and evidence is provided for major design choices. The purpose of the sensor deployment system is to adhere a small biosensor to the mucosa of the intestine long-term, and the modality was inspired by tapeworms and other organisms that employ a strategy of mechanical adhesion to soft tissue via the combined use of hooks or needles and suckers. Testing was performed to refine the design of the suction and needle attachment as well as the sensor ejection features of the ICR. An experiment was conducted in which needle sharpness, needle length, and vacuum volume were varied, and no statistically significant difference was observed. Finally, preliminary testing, coupled with prior work within a live porcine model, provided evidence that this is a promising approach for implanting a biosensor within the small intestine.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Exploded view of the ICR showing major components

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Fig. 2

Integrated ICR working schematic and the real product. (a) ICR with TAM attached, (b) ICR after TAM has been ejected, and (c) manufactured ICR.

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Fig. 3

Front and back circuit diagrams of the ICR’s internal circuit

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Fig. 4

Control flow diagram for the ICR circuit

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Fig. 5

(a) The ICR enters the small intestine. (b) The wax valve is opened allowing the vacuum to aspirate the tissue through the TAM. (c) After the vacuum has dissipated, the spring ejects the TAM off of the ICR. (d) The ICR exits the small bowel, leaving the TAM attached to the intestinal wall.

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Fig. 6

Vacuum volume test setup. ICRs with different vacuum volume chambers were connected to a vacuum pump; when the vacuum was created by the pump, success rate of tissue capture and residual vacuum pressure were recorded.

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Fig. 7

In Vitro experiment test setup. Integrated ICRs were inserted into a fixed fresh intestine tissue, then the ICR was activated and pulled by a tensile test machine, and the force which separated the ICR from the TAM was recorded. Similar to the separation test, the string on the TAM was pulled, and the force which detached the TAM from the tissue was recorded.

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Fig. 8

Residual gauge vacuum pressure after capturing tissue. All measurements are shown; the line is the mean.

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Fig. 9

Attachment/separation forces for ICR samples with different vacuum volumes

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Fig. 10

TAM deployment process and its duration in a live porcine model. (a) X-ray image taken before the recovery of pig. (b) X-ray image taken 4 h after recovery. (c) X-ray image taken 16 h after recovery. (d) X-ray image taken 28 h after recovery. (e) X-ray image taken 40 h after recovery. (f) X-ray image taken 52 h after recovery; the TAM was detached at this point.

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Fig. 11

Histology microscope images. (a) Microscope image of the intestinal tissue at the attached position. (b) Control tissue collected 10 cm orally from the attached position. (c) Control tissue collected 10 cm aborally from the attached position.

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